Dental mesenchymal stem cells have the potential of multilineage differentiation and self-renewal capacity. Studies have shown that subpopulations of stem cells residing in these tissues expressed embryonic stem cell markers. AllCells now offers these types of dental stem cells:
Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSC)
Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous teeth (SHED)
Dental Follicle Stem Cells (DFSC)
Dental Pulp Stem Cells were primarily derived from the pulp tissues of exfoliated deciduous teeth, primary incisors and permanent third molar teeth. The dental pulp, third molars in particular, have been shown to be a significant stem cell source due to greater numbers of stem cells residing in the pulp. DPSCs from third molars have been shown to express developmentally important transcription factors, such as oct4, sox2, klf4, nanog and c-myc, which is an indicator of their pluri-potency. Flow-cytometry analysis revealed DPSCs were positive for CD73, CD90, CD105 and CD166, but negative for CD34, CD45 and CD133, suggesting that these cells are mesenchymal-like stem cells. Under specific culture conditions, DPSCs differentiated into osteogenic, adipogenic and neurogenic cells, as well as formed tube-like structures in Matrigel assay.
Stem Cells From Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth (SHED) are considered to be the most ‘immature’ of the Dental Stem Cells and show the highest proliferative capacity when grown in culture. Similar to the DPSCs from third molars, SHED are very durable in culture and have been passaged over 80 times with no detectable signs of senescence or telomere shortening. SHED express the embryonic stem (ES) cell markers Oct4, Nanog, stage-specific embryonic antigens (SSEA-3, SSEA-4), and tumor recognition antigens (TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81). When cultured in neurogenic medium, SHED form sphere-like clusters which adhere to the culture dish or float freely in the culture medium.
Dental Follicle Stem Cells is an ectomesenchymal tissue surrounding the enamel organ and the dental papilla of the developing tooth germ prior to eruption. The tissue contains the progenitor cells that form the periodontium, (cementum, PDL, and alveolar bone). In culture DFSC adhere to plastic, proliferate well and like other mesenchymal stem cells show a typical fibroblast-like morphology. DFSCs express the embryonic marker OCT4 and the neural progenitor markers Notch-1 and nestin.
Candidates for future research as a new, powerful tool for therapy
To help clarify mechanisms underlying the biological processes in which these cells are involved